Water

Recent increases in rural water access in African countries relied predominantly on groundwater

The JMP’s online analysis tool allows water supply data to be cut by service level (safely managed, basic etc.) or facility type (piped, non-piped), as set out in their 2018 methods doc. "Piped", W2 in their indicator list (p.4) includes all tap water classifications (p.9), i.e. both on-plot piped and off-plot kiosks or public taps.… Continue reading Recent increases in rural water access in African countries relied predominantly on groundwater

costs., Sanitation

Incremental benefits from increases in sanitation service level

The Indus valley civilisation (c.2,000 BCE) coupled on-plot water supply from wells with the first known sewers. However, it was the Minoans (also c.2,000 BCE) who were the first to have piped water systems – I marvelled at the clay pipes and stone sewers at Knossos on Crete. The Minoans understood that piped water on… Continue reading Incremental benefits from increases in sanitation service level

Sanitation

The future is urban, the future is African (and implications for sanitation)

UNPD brought out their 2017 update to World Population Prospects (WPP) last summer. One striking graph from that got me digging into the data into the 2014 World Urbanisation Prospects (WUP) data. This may seem slightly off-topic for a WASH economics blog, but understanding population trends is crucial in economics. For costing purposes, you'll often find yourself multiplying a… Continue reading The future is urban, the future is African (and implications for sanitation)